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Paradiseislandsystem/ english translations/ Diet and Life, chapter 2

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Chapter 2              Written by Reinhold Schweikert,

ParadiesInselFamilie Reinhold Schweikert

Tel.: 00351 245 992 419

Postanschrift: Reinhold Schweikert, Ap.111, 7320-999Castelo de Vide, Portugal

email: paradiesinselfamilie@gmail.com

weblog: paradiseislandfamily.wordpress.com

Plan for establishing a self-sufficient farm on two hectares of land

in southern or central Europe

Completely self-sufficient smallholding for a family or community

My first concept for a smallholding suitable for one family in P.I. System/Short articles, volume 4 can still be recommended but it is probably still too “alternative” and “freaky” for the present civilised citizens and therefore not acceptable or attractive enough. As I do not only wish to address eco-freaks nor want to assume that all the people in the north will be satisfied with the extremely simple buildings I suggested at that time, I have created another draft plan, which this time also deals with the financial side of its profitability, namely various possibilities of running such a smallholding within a consumer society. Furthermore, I would also like to write in more detail about the way such a smallholding functions and operates so that every prospective P.I family is able to understand it exactly and finally establish one themselves.

Overall objective: corridors or allotments separated by fruit hedges,

in which rows of fruit trees can grow without the risk of animals nibbling them

As you can see in the drawing, we plant various systems of fruit hedges to separate and secure the various corridors of vegetables and the grazing area. It can be that in northern countries too much shade may develop in the course of the years so that certain vegetables can no longer ripen sufficiently in some of the fruit woods which gradually grow up. However, we can then keep the farmyard largely free of big trees for such vegetables. Otherwise you can leave more space between the trees.

Note: Normal corridor rows of trees with fruit with stones and kernels are separated by single hedges at a distance of 4m and double hedges with 5m between the rows. They are normally planted in a north-south direction. It is possible to plant lower hedges of up to 1.5m in height between them for climbing plants. In less sunny regions the distance between the rows of trees can be increased to 10m so that the fruit can ripen better. Such larger distances are also to be recommended for trees with tall trunks. You can obtain information about the ideal distances for each sort from your local nursery.

More sunshine will also be able to penetrate if you use small trees. However, very small fruit trees are not favourable for mixed hedges because they are then not able to grow up above the hedge area. But you can, if you wish, create lower hedges inbetween to support climbing vegetables (beans, cucumbers, tomatoes, peas).

However, if we want the corridors gradually to become fruit woods in which our animals can also live as in paradise, these areas will no longer be primarily needed for vegetables but will provide us and our goats, chickens, horses and bees with the best living space and high-grade food in the form of leaves, fruit, nuts, milk, honey and eggs.

Note: I anticipate that it will no longer be possible to keep domestic animals except under optimal conditions in view of the growing environmental pollution especially from electromagnetic radiation. The protection of a fruit wood, fully dunged plants, windfall fruit, non-toxic fauna and flora, protective buildings, the possibility of receiving food and care from humans …. are most likely to help our valuable providers of milk, honey and eggs to stay healthy during the difficult years that are to be expected.

Of course, the same also applies to humans, whose cell material is becoming so poor on account of all the unnatural harmful effects that finally all the dubious methods (poisons, surgical operations, radiation ….) of medical prevention of detoxification will not be able to protect them from attacks from viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites …., which are becoming more and more deadly.

Anyone who today goes into a tropical forest with their completely decadent “civvy” body will be eaten up by insects or parasites within a short time or they will get devastating “diseases”. It is a mystery to me how the “civvies” want to protect themselves in future from the natural police (viruses, bacteria, fungal infections, parasites, insects ….)! With more and more decadent cell substance it is becoming more and more impossible to go outside the “germ-free” area.

Ergo: When establishing your farm, think about humans and domestic animals. Low hedges can easily be used, for example, for grapevines to climb on and some of the grapes can then also be pecked off by the chickens in autumn and the vine leaves are valuable for the goats.

Establishing fruit woods always remains our objective

You must always remember that only in the fruit woods or fruit orchards will there be sufficiently large amounts of nuts and fruit, nectar and leaves and thus food for humans and animals. Therefore we will also build up our main supply of food principally from this fruit from the trees in the wood and the products of the residents of the fruit woods, meaning nuts, honey, milk and eggs, none of which cost us anything. – Even though I don’t want to diminish the important of vegetables, we must, however, recognise that the above-mentioned foodstuffs require almost no work, at least in good climatic conditions, once the P.I. System farm has been established.

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Without a fruit wood we would not be able to harvest either specific human or animal food to such a large extent. It would by no means provide a habitat for so many living creatures and plants and, above all, the quality of life and food for all those concerned would not be nearly as high if we only cultivated the fields.

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We should also consider the wider positive impact of such fruit woods on our climate and air for breathing or on the cleansing of our planet.

Vegetables in fruit woods?

In our fruit woods we grow cabbages, Jerusalem artichokes, courgettes, in general all types of lettuces and leafy vegetables, also fennel, carrots and other root vegetables. We still have lettuce when everything has long dried up everywhere else. Cucumbers, beans and courgettes or pumpkins climbing on the trees are protected from the harsh rays of the sun in summer. – Only where it is really dark under trees or where there are strong trees with shallow roots do low vegetable plants die for want of light and nutrients. But even in dark woods there is room for useful plants. I am thinking of certain sorts of strawberry, for example,.

Some possibilities for growing plants in corridors in fruit woods

a) Courgettes can be planted in the rows of trees where you should build up a bank of compost material (twigs, mulch, grass sods …) on both sides (so that the trees stand in a valley, a compost trench). We grow Jerusalem artichokes or sweet corn and brassica oleracea between the rows. The chickens can be let into this corridor in autumn.

Drawings:

a) We dig two parallel approx. 1m-wide trenches along less dense rows of (young) trees and

fill them with mulching material to form heaps. We plant or sow courgettes or pumpkins in

the space between the mulching material and the earth bank on both of the outer sides. We

plant cucumbers along both the inner sides along the path in the middle and put up nets

about 1m high for them to climb on.

b) With denser rows of trees we can let the cucumbers climb into the treetops on strings.

c) Older and therefore often very dense hollow paths or fruit wood paths can simply be sown

with pumpkins and the shoots which grow over the path are covered again and again with

mulching material so that they climb more and more strongly sideways out of the mulched

path into the trees. Pumpkins hanging on the trees often fall to the ground before they

are fully ripe because of their great weight, as big pears do. – Water them sufficiently, but

never splash water on their leaves because of the risk of mould. Pay attention to the danger

of mice. – With this special method of growing cucumbers you will not only obtain record

amounts but also optimal tree growth. – This time even without manure, only with mulch

from grass, leaves, straw, branches ….! Of course, especially the first method is sometimes

also suitable for other vegetables (such as paprikas, potatoes, tomatoes and beans) and for

open land without trees. There you can also grow melons in this way.

d) We plant cucumbers and/or runner beans along another row of trees or hedge, also with a

bank of compost at the side and protected with branches against scratching. If there are

Jerusalem artichokes inbetween, hens can be let into this corridor the whole year. This

corridor where the hens scratch should be constantly filled up with mulching material and

watered. Then the rows of trees will grow enormously and we can also use them to create

“living houses” – for this we twist and entwine the shoots or tops of two rows of trees of

the same kind which grow into each other.

e) We use a shady wood corridor for leafy vegetables and lettuce. Here we just garden,

constantly dung with fine goat manure, fermented liquid manure, lime …. and break or

regulate too strong sunshine by means of some cleverly placed Jerusalem artichokes. No

chickens in the lettuce garden! It is scarcely possible to grow lettuce in the hot southern

summer. You would have to water it every morning and evening.

Gardening in a wood

is different from the usual gardening in the open on fields and beds. You only cultivate superficially, if at all. Otherwise you mulch and plant, cut out unwanted plants for the goats or let the chickens clear a corridor completely ready for sowing. You often only scatter seed on patches of naked soil and cover them with fine goat manure or shredded material. A lot of plants sow themselves . You should not fight inhabitants of any kind, whether plants or animals as this is senseless and too time-consuming. Instead we observe and “study” certain cycles and symbioses. Where we plant Jerusalem artichokes, for example, we must reckon immediately with large numbers of voles, if we leave the tubers in the earth in autumn, as is usual, until they are to be eaten,. They, in turn, can attract small predatory animals and wild cats. (Chickens also catch and eat mice!) The predatory animals may then also at the same time reduce the tits to a bearable number so that fewer buds on the almond trees and berry bushes get eaten in winter and there are thus bigger crops.

Sun-hungry vegetables

If necessary, we can also regulate the amount of sunshine in all corridors by cutting back the foliage of the trees, but we mostly prefer to wait with the radical pruning until late summer. However, leaves that are cut shortly because they fall from the trees often no longer taste very good to the animals.

If we know how to use the time when the leaves fall in autumn (thus letting in more light again) and the time when the leaves grow in spring (protection against sun and frost), we can use the wood like a living greenhouse to lengthen the growing period of many useful plants.

Photo: Cucumbers like to climb on trees, protected in the moist and shady summer fruit wood.

It is, however, beyond doubt that many kinds of vegetables, especially fruit vegetables only develop their best quality and provide mass crops in the full sun. Open areas in full sunshine are no problem in the initial years of growing the fruit hedges or woods. But later we will reserve the yard for our precious vegetables and

Note: In these sunnier outer areas we mainly grow for ourselves and our animals sun-hungry food plants which take up a lot of space, such as sweet corn, potatoes, tomatoes, melons, pumpkins, cabbage, possibly also sunflowers, rye, oats, barley and wheat. In the fields we also grow vegetables for winter storage, for example, onions and carrots, beetroot, cabbages and turnips to feed the animals and perhaps the black winter radish as well.

we repeatedly use the edges of the grazing areas for our field vegetables. – We can then keep our dairy animals and chickens as we wish in the corridors between the rows of trees, which have now grown up high.

Not all trees are suitable for a fruit wood

It is better that all too strongly growing trees and, above all, types of trees with shallow roots do not stand in the corridors or young fruit woods, since such trees greatly hamper vegetable growing and push out the fruit trees. It is not possible to work the soil in an area where there are shallow roots. – Therefore I have placed only stone fruit trees on one side and on the other apples and small pear trees in the present plan. I had already planned the large pear trees and some oaks for the peripheral wall of plants. But if you still want to use the space under the fast-growing trees with shallow roots for gardening, I recommend planting vegetables with deep roots there or simply putitng trees in pots there. (Propagation of seedlings, potted fruit plants, orangeries ….)

Photo: Well-dunged mimosas are fast-growing trees with shallow roots and after a few years they will be taller than all your fruit trees. They can get along with the latter but not with vegetable growing. These trees provide the first pollen for the bees with us here in Portugal and good protection from frost and sun, which is why we grow trees in pots under them.

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We must manage our sunshine as well as a solar energy technician does if our farms are to function according to plan and our products are to attain a high quality.

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Caution with huge trees

Of the large selection of tall umbrella-shaped or large trees I recommend some oaks – if possible with sweet acorns – on the periphery on account of their excellent nutritional and life quality, chestnuts in the front yard, perhaps a linden tree in the yard, walnuts in the grazing area and hazelnut bushes or trees in the boundary fences, or rather almonds in hot regions. You are welcome to modify my plan. – For example, plant oaks in the grazing area and walnuts in the wall of plants between the garden and grazing meadow or add some other kinds. Both variants have advantages and disadvantages. But you should be very restrained with other “giants” on a two-hectare farm, from which you really want to live with your family and animals.

In general we want to transform as much sunshine as possible into fruit, nuts, vegetables …., i.e. primarily agricultural crops, and secondly into milk, eggs and honey.We will select our plant-animal community especially with this aspect in mind and create an ecological balance and symbioses and food cycles which are as useful as possible and in which, above all, humans can be involved as well.

Autonomy guaranteed!

Once the described farm has been established, we will in fact largely achieve independence and autonomy for ourselves and our animals. – Even concerning “concentrated food” for animals we can store acorns and chestnuts for times of scarcity – provided we pick them industriously.

We have no space to spare!

Trees which are mainly only useful for their wood or which don’t get on with our vegetables and fruit trees should therefore be planted outside our farm, in places far from humans or only where the more sensitive fruit and nut trees do not thrive.

You should exercise special caution with all coniferous trees! Since they are highly inflammable, they should not even be planted at the edges of our farms but preferably only stand in places which suit them, namely in mountains, cold regions or in barren, infertile areas.

Some conifers are, of course, very resistant to heat and drought, which is why they have been successfully grown in a lot of regions in the south. However, before you plant a grove of pines, for example, you should look again for more useful alternatives (such as oaks, chestnuts, almonds ….) and, above all, consider the fire risk.

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Lesson from the burning summer of 2003: Don’t plant any flammable trees in avenues or by roadsides! Keep all roadsides either green (with watering) or free from grass! Construct reservoirs, dams, ponds …. wherever possible.

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Trees at risk from fire

The following trees can burn but are not so flammable if they are planted and looked after properly:

With eucalyptus, for example, especially the bark, which constantly peels off and collects on the ground, burns. There will be no problem if you collect it regularly to mulch the garden or burn in winter. Even broom does not immediately start to blaze when it is green and there are no dried up twigs in the bush. The side branches of pines/conifers must be removed up to a considerable height. There should be no branches lying on the ground nor tall standing grass. Don’t plant your trees too close together! Cork trees and oaks are relatively robust and can survive a bush fire. The problem with these, however, is the layers of leaves falling every year, which hardly rot and pile up in a thick covering, which immediately catches fire when the leaves are dry and then goes on glowing for days, sometimes even under rocks until it can break out into an open fire again. It is difficult to cut dry branches out of thick and wide thorny hedges and so they constitute a certain fire risk.

Ergo: keep hedges and woods clean! Don’t plant flammable trees too close together or in dangerous areas.

The fruit hedges

We separate all the corridors by hedges as thick as possible so that chickens and also goats (possibly sheep) can be let on to every enclosed piece of land as required or can be kept out. Corridors of fruit trees, whose hedges should only consist of weaker fruit bushes (currants) or small trees, could be made additionally secure with wire fences. Even if initially only every second or third row of trees is made into a single or double hedge impenetrable for animals, there will be sufficient plots for switching the animals.

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We must know that the more individual plots we separateoff with hedges (or filled walls),

the more animals and humans find food and shelter on our farm,

the better we can use our animals as assistant gardeners,

the faster our fruit trees grow and .

the better the quality of everything for humans and animals!

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There is also the possibility of placing the berries which are vulnerable to animals nibbling inside double hedges consisting of robust plants.

Some examples of hedges:

A: Double quince hedge with berries: We plant two parallel rows of quince hedges with a distance of one metre or more between them. In the middle you can plant currants or raspberries or cultivated pear trees with the usual distance between them. All quince hedges can be connected to the pears, intertwined with them, pruned according to your wishes/needs and also made very dense by rooting as many of the growing branches as you like. For this you take a long shoot, sharpen the tip a little, bend it downwards and stick it in the soil as firmly and deep as possible so that it can take root. In this way you can even make the hedge chicken-proof. Bantams or chicks will, however, mostly still be able to find a place to slip through or under the hedge. You will certainly wonder how berries hidden in such double hedges can be picked at all. This is certainly a justified question. – In the case of blackcurrants the shoots with berries on them can grow out of the quince hedge every year and be eaten back by the dairy animals again after the harvest. (Redcurrants, whose older shoots always have to be completely cut out, would be less favourable here.) Raspberries have a firm support from the quince corset and don’t need to be tied.

In warmer regions use, above all, all possible kinds of grapevines!

From our experience you can find ripe fruit

In our crop gardens it is not a matter of producing harvestable market goods as quickly as possible but of feeding people and animals directly in them. And these will put up with some difficulties in picking if, in return, they can achieve real self-sufficiency, all the food thrives on a very small area and their surroundings or garden habitat is really a paradise.

But we should not pick all the fruit, berries and nuts ourselves at all! For after all our domestic animals are supposed to live from them as well! Raspberries that have fallen to the ground, for example, would still be very popular food for the bantams. If the raspberries grow too far out of the hedge, we let the goats take care of it.

In general we can say that we may sometimes really have some difficulty with care and harvesting when using this intensive method of simultaneously planting vegetables and fruit combined with keeping animals. The difficulties are greater where systems of double thorny hedges are used, as they cannot always be eaten back by the animals everywhere but have to be cut back by us if need be. For example, I sometimes had to almost creep through the original paths in some corridors where cucumbers were climbing on trees. When pumpkins grow wild and climb on the trees you sometimes feel as if you are in a jungle. – But such difficulties do not put any strain on us at all. Compared with driving to the town and purchasing inferior products costing a lot of money, we have to put up with far less trouble and stress in our paradise garden in any case.

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The following rule applies: the more densely and concentratedly all the components grow and live near us on a small area, the shorter our “shopping distance” is and the more people can live and eat naturally there with full quality of food and life.

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B: Jostaberry hedges: This sort of berry bush grows fast enough and attains a sufficient size for it to be thick and large enough to protect trees and fence in hoofed animals, at least for a short time.

C: Roses and apples: You can also only plant this combination of hedges impenetrable for hoofed animals in a single row and also with a small number of (rose) cuttings and layers(shoots rooted by bending them downwards) in the inner corridor area. Any rose hedges in the grazing area should, of course, be planted in double rows and possibly have additional supporting elements (quinces). It holds moisture very well and can withstand drought. Even in times of severe drought you can always find some moisture in the ground under rose hedges.

D: Mixed hedges: We have chosen a combination of roses, blackberries, quinces and grapevines to separate the grazing and garden areas. Peaches, plums and apricots stand in this hedge for protection and grow up above it.

E: Hedges from a single species of fruit: We can, in principle, grow any kind of tree in the form of a hedge. Especially wild fruit trees often tend to have spreading roots or have masses of seedlings in spring because we didn’t want to pick their poor fruit and simply left it on the ground. And so in spring you often have countless little trees which you can plant close together in hedgerows. Sorts which grow larger – even plums can be sufficient – can be planted very close together (10-20 cm) for a certain distance so that you can later twist and entwine them to make a “living house”.

In my opinion, it is therefore also more favourable always to plant the same species in the corridors, that means either stone fruit or pears, medlars and quinces or types of apple! Only one of these three groups in each case! – Because the blossoms can be better fertilised but also because of the possibilities for later coupling and grafting them or constructing houses from them.

Stronger and weakers types

If there are fast-growing wild trees, especially ones with shallow roots, in a mixed hedge, it may happen that the lower hedge plants, such as berries, are not able to develop sufficiently and stay alive. There you can use our “filled walls” (walls made of twigs which are supported and made firm at the sides) so that there are nevertheless no spaces in such cases. If we want to bridge too dry places, this may possibly only work with plants which exchange sap via spreading roots, via layering above ground or branches which have grown together (intertwining). Then the plants standing on moist ground can supply water to those which have little of it.

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All our fruit trees can be planted in all hedges without any problem.

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Keeping poultry in the corridors

If three corridors from rows of trees are combined in each case to form a compact enclosed piece of land, you don’t need as many doors to the directly adjoining farm ring building.

Improvement: It would be better to plan a ring road along the outside of the ring building so that animals can be let out from all the stable and stall areas or exits into each corridor and materials accumulating in the corridors can be transported away and filled into the walls.

Otherwise it would be necessary to make a separate door to the ring building from every corridor, which would, in turn, have to be designed in such a way that there was a small door or trapdoor in every door so that the bantams and chicks, for example, but not the normal races could get through. Then we can let our poultry into any garden plots that can bear chickens to look for food and only let bantams and chicks, which the garden can tolerate, or no poultry at all into too vulnerable or freshly sown cultivated gardens, as we wish. Almost any part of the garden can tolerate a couple of bantams or a brooding hen from our feathery-legged bantams. Here it is important to be able to feed as many chickens as possible from your own land. This will be all the easier, the more extensive the scratching areas are and, above all, when they can be varied. The insect and plant populations quickly recover in a corridor which is closed off for just a few days. The many hedges and filled twig walls provide insects and small animals with enough food and shelter so that here there are natural feeding machines for chickens virtually everywhere. Unfortunately there may also be ideal hiding places for predatory animals.

Keeping out predatory animals and fire

Therefore, when building the farm, exercise especial care beforehand to ensure there are areas free of predators for all the chickens at least in the corridor area. It would, of course, be best to seal off the entire farm hermetically on the outside against all intruders. A wall as high as possible (at least 2 m) would be better than a wire fence in this case because it also offers protection from fire. If you choose wire fencing for the exterior boundary, the adjoining grazing land and fields can still offer sufficient protection against fire. This exterior ring strip should be 20 m wide or more. The animals, particularly sheep, horses and donkeys prevent low overgrowth, branches lying around or dried grass and leaves there. Fields and vegetable land are also safe from fire. When planning, make sure that this outer ring provides systematic fire protection. so that no fire bridges to the inside can be created and that all the boundary trees are of a fireproof kind.

Living hedges and living houses are always better than hedges made of twigs (filled walls). There should always be gaps in the latter from time to time. You should mulch on flat areas or in heaped-up rows and let as much dead material as possible rot in the corridors over the wet seasons or be trampled or eaten by the animals.

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Composting/using accumulated plant material

– Fine material such grass and leaves as/in/for: mulch for flat areas, plant hollows, plant

trenches, dairy animals, places for hens to scratch, empty ponds.

– Coarser greenery: goats, donkeys, cows

– Dry twigs: donkeys, mules and horses trample and eat them. Protection for vegetables

against scratching in areas with chickens, cultivation in ponds. – Spread out material which

will rot in areas which can be flooded. Flood them for at least three months. Then drain away

the water and immediately plant vegetables which require a lot of nutrients in the mud. Add

lime if necessary.

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Construct filled walls in the grazing area as feeding racks with boxes for planting trees at the sides or sometimes also as feeding houses between two parallel racks connected with a roof.

Our chickens should be able to lay, brood and sleep anywhere they like. People who have to shut them up at night are violating their living rules and as a consequence have sick chickens or unhealthy eggs. Neither do we want to shut up lambs because of the risk of predators. At present there are considerable numbers of predators almost everywhere. The worst of these are straying dogs. Small predatory animals up to the size of cats can be tolerated. Smaller species of chickens or chicks, particularly without a mother hen, are also killed by cats.

If it is not possible to close off the entire farm at the beginning, the yard and the ring building could at least offer the chickens a safe place for sleeping at night, laying and brooding.

How many chickens can find food?

It is difficult to give numbers for a possible chicken population because the farms only provide their full yield and habitat after a certain time. Besides, a lot depends of how skilfully the gardeners manage their farms, dung them appropriately and furnish the different plots with suitable (feeding) plants and and/or animals. – But 100 bantams or 50 of a large variety should be able to be fed if it is possible to buy some additional food (wheat and maize). If not, it is easier to feed the bantams. In functioning old farms it would certainly also be possible to keep 200 feathery-legged bantams alone with a small amount of extra food. However, then there would only be small eggs in a not very large quantity. On the other hand, we could already feed these chickens with vegetables, fruit and the left-overs from our meals.

In the individual cases, the ideal number can only be found in practice and, of course, it also depends on how many people live on the farm and leave suitable waste for chickens (food left-overs, also excrements).

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Beware! – All species of chickens mix with one another!

– If you want to maintain several breeds, each must be kept in a separate area.

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The easiest thing is certainly to keep chickens less intensively, that means only one cock and about ten hens. This number can mostly be fed on the side without any problem. Choose a normal species if you want to have eggs. Choose bantams or guinea fowl if you want to keep chickens mainly to get rid of waste and keep the land free of insects. (Beware, guinea fowl also eat bees!)

Income from P.I. System farms

You will, of course, get not only wanted eggs from the feathery-legged bantams, who like brooding, but also a lot of offspring. However, it is doubtful whether external meat-eaters would get accustomed to the blueish meat of this species. Besides, making money from selling slaughtered chickens is, in principle, a delicate matter for us. We do not want to depend on such sources of income and do not need them either.

It is usually not worth keeping an excessive amount of livestock. All maintenance costs increase immensely once you have to buy feed or cereals. Parallel to this, the sickness figures will rise in animals and humans when the purchased foodstuffs are not as they should be. With the present quality you feed your animals with costly feed until they become ill in the long term. Your dairy cattle will get soft and susceptible to parasites, develop inflamed udders, birthing problems …. Chickens die of coxidosis and other parasitic diseases. Dairy cattle which are fed with products from our garden and waste from our kitchen and thus get exclusively high-quality feed suited to their species, need no cereal as a rule and still yield good amounts of milk. In our self-sufficient household even chickens can be fed wihout any problem in/from our gardens without purchasing extra cereals, provided we limit ourselves to a small number.

So it is a big question whether more intensive chicken-keeping is “worthwhile” for us today. Of course, the prices of eggs and poultry might soar soon. Of course, all dairy products from goats, sheep or cows can fetch very high prices when they are sold on the health food market or as raw milk products. Of course, there is also a demand for all slaughtered animals. However, the large quantities of vegetables and fruit account for most of the directly marketable products from small farms.

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Here it must be mentioned that the idea of marketing, selling for money and thus trading with pure profit motives is not admissible. We should first realise what is good and true. Money should never have priority anymore. Unlike in the consumer system, in natural systems good things also bring in money again or benefits for everyone and truth, wisdom and honesty lead to success.

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Photo: The plums from our trees laden to breaking point find takers not only among our farm residents.

Where and how to market produce?

Here there is the question of what you want to sell. You can found a small distribution ring, build up pick-your-own systems, rent a stand at the market. –You can achieve the best profit if you run a small restaurant or pub and/or take in health-seeking paying guests, also for long periods.

Other possibilities are seminars, workshops, training courses for ongoing ecological practitioners, health stays, recreation, etc. Once a P.I. System has been built up, there will be a considerable demand not only for the products but also for staying/living there, for which you can charge a good fee so as to reimburse yourself later for your work in establishing the farm. Beside its normal function as a provider of food and a place for living, every farm with our system will be able to assume many other tasks for which people have to pay a lot of money today (wellness centres, spa institutions, life school, nursery school, training institute, seminar venue ….)

There are other marketing possibilities if you process products, such as fermented vegetable preserves, cheese, wine-making ….

As already mentioned, we are not primarily concerned here with selling and earning money in order to “get rich” but with leading a healthy, happy life, being independent, “not having to buy things anymore” and “not needing money anymore”.

My advice:

Be aware from the start that nobody can match the quality of your natural produce, which is not available on the normal market. Your home-grown produce is, above all for you, of inestimable worth and cannot be bought by others, not even with money!

Sufficient people will very quickly be found who will want to buy up all your laboriously and manually produced food. They will make “good friends” with you and thereby expect you to let them have your products cheaply or for nothing. They will be angry with you if you ask a higher price. If you asked the real price in terms of hours of labour or the value for you, they would consider you mad.

Some people will also do small services in return. Mostly material things from “civilisation” or services which you no longer need or want, once you live really naturally.

Make the situation clear from the beginning! People who want good products should garden themselves. People who want milk should keep goats. People who want oil should pick olives! People who want to enjoy honey should keep bees! People who thinks they are too fine and noble for farm work and don’t want to get their fingers dirty should buy from the normal market or pay until they turn black! It is not a matter of greed for money on our part but of educating people! This is the only way of giving farm work back the importance it deserves, turning consumerists away from their dawdling in towns and getting them to work sensibly.

Don’t forget: Spending one’s time on useless or unnatural activities is a crime against oneself and one’s environment!

Don’t be under any illusions! At the beginning you will scarcely manage or at least find it very hard to provide for yourself and your family completely! Keep the small amout you produce for yourself! As soon as you have to buy deficient products, your life state and thus immediately your ability to cultivate your garden and look after your animals will worsen. The job of a self-sufficient farmer is more demanding and requires considerably more personality and strength of character than all other “civvy” jobs!

About the farm buildings

Finally some explanations about the planned buildings for your small farm. The ring buildings themselves should be designed to be simple but still variable so that they can provide shelter and food for all your animals but also for your plants periodically. Therefore I would choose walls for the sides and a glass roof so that the stables/stalls can also serve as greenhouses when no animals are living in them. Daylight from above is good for all animals (and humans), even when it is somewhat falsified by glass. The walls should not go right up to the roof so that you can bring hay, straw, grass, leaves …. inside without having to swallow the usual quantities of dust while doing so. Such buildings would be even lighter if instead of the side walls you only mount latticed racks, under which chickens can pass in either direction as they like, scratch and also lay eggs as long as you keep the passageways clear.

But we should keep to a more sturdy outer wall, at least on the side of the prevailing wind: then you should build feeding racks which can stand being jumped over along the inner side of such walls so that plenty of air can always enter from the side and all the hay, straw, grass or fresh leaves for animal feed cut outside only have to be filled into them once. In this way you don’t need to carry hay and straw up to the loft and then fetch it down again as used to be done and it can even dry in such a large covered rack.

Note: Since we gear our stock of animals to the size of our land as a rule, we don’t need such large storage spaces for hay and straw. However, should it be possible to keep large herds/flocks because there is sufficient land for grazing outside the farm, large parts of the ring building might possibly have to be filled completely or more barns built. Storing hay and foodstuffs and extensive storage will, of course, be unavoidable in areas with long and hard winters.

Photo: Our system of filled walls made of broad twig racks would be suitable for airy side walls or large feeding racks.

If you want to reduce the influx of cold air into the farm buildings in winter, you simply fill the walls with more feeding racks up to the roof. For the inside you should plan some food stores which replenish themselves automatically for various additional foodstuffs such as acorns, chestnuts, oats and also chicken feed. Here you must be especially careful that only the animals for whom the food is intended can help themselves. If you are not careful with the food management, mice and rats will quickly start to breed. Some domestic animals would also eat excessive amounts of so-called concentrated food if given the free choice.

Such ring greenhouses or stables/stalls of course provide the best conditions for plants as well. If you plan safe grills for shutting off the individual stables/stalls beforehand, you can even grow vegetables during winter – heated with warmth from the animals (cowshed effect) and fermentation. Then let your well-dunged pumpkins or cucumbers climb out into the open air in good time in the spring. You should plan the roof construction in such a way that rain water can be channelled into the greenhouse if needed at any time without excessive conversion manoeuvres.

Dwelling house and other functions

I have positioned a solid dwelling house in such a way that there is a chestnut orchard for a guesthouse at the front and covered parking spaces/outbuildings or stables for cart horses. Behind the dwelling house with a cellar, whose furnishings I don’t want to describe here, there is a closed courtyard which is protected on all sides from wind and weather and also from the eyes of intruders of any kind. Thus we have a very private and intimate area to withdraw to where we can forget the rest of the world. Nobody should be allowed to enter or look into this area unless it is agreeable to the family. The inner courtyard and its corridors thus grow into a living park which nobody can look into from outside and which completely feeds its gardeners and shepherds over generations, keeps them in safety and provides excellent lodging and fulfilling work and independence, protection and security from this crazy world their whole lives long.

Protected core area of our plant castle

For the plants in the inner courtyard I would possibly choose a linden tree for the middle, but otherwise preferably only small bushes and shrubs (elder, kiwi, grapevines), also a lot of spice plants, perhaps citrus trees or other sensitive fruit in pots (in the glasshouse over the winter). Growing vegetables could be one main useful purpose of the inner courtyard.

Of course, what anybody plants, grows, builds, keeps, does or does not do in their inner area should, of course, be entirely their private matter. Nobody has the right to enter this area against the residents’ wishes. Our age of the “transparent citizen” severely violates basic personal rights and should be put an end to.”Violation of privacy” must again become a criminal offence protected by (natural) laws.

Paradises for animals, people and plants

On our life islands it is our intention to create the most ideal – that means the most natural – living conditions for all our domestic animals, plants and ourselves. All the plant and animal members of our island can complement each other wonderfully here so that a wholefood diet, perfect health and abundant life of the highest quality becomes possible for everybody. Therefore degeneration is not only stopped on such farms but all those concerned can at last sresume their regenerative, evolutive higher and further development.

Annexe:

Some wisdom for ecological practice that shouldn’t be forgotten

– Potatoes will be attacked by potato beetles if they are incorrectly or excessively dunged or lacking

in nutrients

– Caterpillars eat cabbages which are incorrectly, excessively or insufficiently dunged

– Animals/humans who eat such plants will also be susceptible to illnesses or “pests” such as

parasites, attacks by insects ….

– Plants (animals and humans) are living creatures which constantly need water, good and sufficient

food, light (fresh air) and appropriate temperatures

– Mistakes, negligence, poisoning, mistreatment …. which we afflict on our plants, animals and

fellow beings come back to us

– All the good we do benefits us as well. Correct food for all plants, animals and humans in line

with nature starts off a natural cycle which brings qualitative improvement and higher development

for everyone and everything

(Better tasting fruit, vegetables, nuts, eggs, honey and better milk result in better-looking, more healthy, natural people connected with God.)

What is to be done with the many flower gardens?

Suggestions for the natural redesigning of flower gardens and parks

Time is pressing. According to Lemesurier (Cheops secret code), the absolute end of the materialist consumer civilisation is to begin in 2004. Another startling prophecy proclaims “Year of flooding, year of burning, year of blood”. – It is all the same whether we are to expect war crises or “only” further degeneration, decadence and imprisonment with “civilisation”. The dementia caused by this foolish civilisation in the centres has already assumed devastating proportions in the current year of 2003. Those affected don’t even notice it but trudge through their artificial world like living corpses in the lethargy and paralysis caused by techno-radiation, with a constant stream of background music and manipulation, poor food and poisons. The memory of past times (more) full of strength and life (before 1982) has apparently faded. Some people believe in wear and tear and ageing, others in the ozone hole. As good as nobody still considers it necessary to go to the country and provide for

Note: We are hardly able to judge if the so-called ozone hole is a manoeuvre to distract us or another real factor in the destruction of our health potential. However, subjectively we can actually experience an increased harmful and unpleasant, “sick” radiation of heat from the sun. But we can by no means assume that this is the reason why the fruit on our trees rot, animals fall ill and we are losing our ability to perform. I/We experience the microwave radiation from the mobile phone stations and/or from satellites at any rate more harmful and destructive. Besides, it is well possible that there is a causal connection between the two harmful factors. At any rate, insiders are in agreement that the ozone hole is not caused by FCCs from spray cans.

themselves.

– But they would all have a good reason to concern themselves with becoming self-sufficient at once and with all their might. The P.I. System and my writings would provide the instructions and the know-how. In the meantime I regard it as scandalous and downright criminal if this information is swept under the carpet any longer and not circulated only because certain people dislike some passages or certain nutrition popes see their thrones wobbling, others fear for their business or my works simply cannnot be published because nobody provides money for it.

But back to the point: I believe that the “civvies” will have to recognise bitterly within the foreseeable future that it is not possible to live from and with the plants and animals in their surroundings and they will then look for ways to replace them with (more) useful ones. So that not even more is destroyed and deforested there are the following possibilities for converting areas with yields into paradise gardens with high(er) yields:

A: Flower gardens with trees

Here an analysis should be made of the existing plant families or species of trees and, if possible, related useful ones, i.e. fruit-bearing ones planted in the same area. The old trees will first serve to provide shade and will be cut back and finally removed when they are in the way of or take too much sun away from the growing fruit trees.

Related species of cultivated trees can be planted directly next to flowering kinds. The cultivated kind can be wound around the trunk of the related ornamental tree so that it initially acts as a stable support and provides shade, gradually constricts and and joins together with the other tree’s sap channel. In this way the entire root strength of the wild tree is available to the cultivated one. The former is completely cut back step by step after the two trees have grown together.

Another possibility of grafting neighbouring trees of related species on to one another consists of joining single branches of two or more trees together by intertwining them. Here, as well, they have a common sap channel after they have grown together and you can then cut back the wild tree completely so that all its sap strengthens the cultivated fruit tree and its structure becomes firmer and stronger.

The last and best known improvement technique consists of grafting related species of trees on to each other by setting twigs and buds with the budding knife. You can inform yourself about this in the relevant literature. Experience has shown that not everyone is successful with this kind of grafting the first time.

B: Wild areas planted with grass, shrubs and bushes

If you want to prepare areas for growing vegetables, you should graze animals there first if possible. After that you should make trenches with the broadest available hoe and put all overgrowth, grass sods and also kitchen waste, leaves and human and animal manure in them. You should cover the previous furrow with the soil dug from the next one. You can in this way create either rows of humps (for potatoes) or flat areas (for leafy vegetables) or small dung hollows (for pumpkins, cucumbers, melons), raised beds …. according to what you are going to plant. You can sow seed directly in such dunging trenches and also plant out cuttings or plants or hedges of fruit trees, depending on the intended use and intervals. You don’t need to do this work in one go but you can constantly dig new trenches over the entire autumn and winter (if the ground isn’t frozen) and sow seeds or plant cuttings in them.

You can also achieve an adequate fertilising result by simply removing the top layer of grass in pieces from an area of meadow using a hoe and piling them up in rows of beds about one metre wide and 50 cm high or in any shapes or structures you like. Bushes and trees planted on the sides or tops of these beds grow and fruit vigorously there for several years as do hedges or double hedges as well. The exposed soil is free of weeds but should be fertilised with humus-forming material (manure or mulch containing straw).

If you plant parallel hedges with fruit and berries at intervals of five metres in a north-south direction and alternately grow vegetables and keep domestic animals between them, within a few years a high-yielding fruit wood will develop, where you and your domestic animals can live, eat and work in a natural and healthy way. (You can find further information about this in “Diet and Life”, volume 2.)

Drawing: Wide trenches with banks at the sides are filled with mulching material, thus providing ideal fertilising hollows for growing vegetables, hedges and living houses as well optimal care of quality fruit trees.

C: Transforming woods into fruit woods

We should aim at creating woods for living in or paradise gardens with a share of at least 80% fruit trees in the immediate surroundings so as to be able to obtain most of our food directly and with the shortest way. The existing wooded areas should also be modified with a view to human food requirements. Here a 50% share of trees providing food is enough. Large fruit trees can be allowed to dominate there, first and foremost nut trees but also cherry, apple and pear trees. These are also to be recommended for their wood. Here we are interested in species which bear large quantities of fruit which can be picked and made ready for storing to help feed people and animals in winter.

Here, too, the existing wood should not be razed thoughtlessly and with brute force but it should be used for building useful structures. You should make use of forest farmers or gardeners who can also start working there with their families. Existing trees which are of little use and already large might be felled one by one and sold, burned as heating fuel but preferably sawed into boards and beams and used on the spot for building. A large number of small forest farms can be created in this way. You can, however, also build protective shields for the new trees with pieces of trunk. (In the wood, too, there live a large number of animals which nibble or consume small trees.) You should construct boxes in the style of log cabins.

Neither should woods of tall thin trees be completely cleared but we can make intelligent fencing systems, feeding racks, walls filled with twigs and other kinds of protections for food trees …. and more or less build up our whole smallholding system with lots of separate plots and corridors consisting of hedges of fruit trees and berry hedges. If we move into the wood with a large number of goats and possibly a donkey, mule or horse, we have good reason to constantly cut back all the trees which are of little and use them as animal feed, thus providing protection, space, light and fertiliser for the new food trees.

D: Other areas, greenery along roads, public parks

All roadsides and public parks should also gradually be transformed into fruit-bearing areas. Fruit and berry hedges can even be planted along highways in a density that can reduce the impact of cars that crash into them, thus saving lives. But here I am already thinking of the time “afterwards”. At a not too distant time in the future ramblers, carts and herds/flocks of animals should finally move along our roads again and find strength and be able to experience peaceful and idyllically free rambling times in the avenues.

E: Fruit in pots / Possibilities in densely populated areas

People who have no land of their own, don’t have much space, have to move soon, are not allowed or don’t want to change anything on their land (yet) should occupy themselves with growing fruit trees in pots. Fruit trees in pots also provide people living on their own land with interesting possibilities. You are mobile with the trees, can thus choose sun and shade exactly, water and fertilise selectively and pick easily. Mice, bugs and other pests have no chance. To prevent chickens scratching in the pots you can place them in a higher position, place stones on the soil in the pots and possibly plant strawberries or herbs underneath trees. Make sure that there are some worms in the pots and fertilise or mulch them well regularly.Without worms there is the danger of the soil becoming hard. Then the tree will suffocate and get lice.

If you care for the little fruit trees properly, they will not only give you a lot of pleasure but also yield considerable amounts of fruit in a very small space. The learning effect should not be underrated either. You have “your friend, the tree” in your immediate proximity and have possibly already got to know it before you move to the countryside and plant big orchards with the same type of tree.

Pots and containers for planting trees

Choose trees which don’t grow big for your pots. Terracotta pots are not always favourable and they are very expensive, above all. You can also obtain big containers which don’t cost a lot if you halve plastic barrels or remove the lids from plastic canisters, A lot of containers which could be used for this purpose still end up in the rubbish. Trees can also be planted in plastic bags. Use lattice sacks that let the air in so that the trees can later be planted out directly in their bags.

When using plastic bags for planting trees, you must remember that they will rot after about one year. That’s why this method only appears to be sensible if the tree can be planted out within this time.

Revoke wrong laws!

Laws and officials who today still obstruct and block the above restructuring plans, a return to the countryside / forest were decreed for durchsicht? reasons, are already completely senseless and obsolete and obviously impact on / act negligently and criminally regarding the future and protection of the lives of all citizens.

If possible, dig mulching hollows and fertilising trenches already in autumn and fill them with heaps of mulching material (leaf cuttings, dried grass, straw, manure, kitchen waste, contents of night-time pots ….). In spring tread down the sunken heaps somewhat if necessary, flatten them and add lime depending on what you intend to plant. Plant vegetables which require a lot of nutrients, preferably at the edges, that means between the mulch compost and the side wall.

(More ideas in “Natural food and natural life/ The successful way back to nature”)

Sowing times for autumn and winter vegetables in Portugal:

(The months mentioned are always inclusive, e.g. to September = to the end of September)

Spinach: large kind of winter spinach from July to October

Small kind (Viroflay) possible from January to November.

Lamb’s lettuce: after other crops as a late crop until September

Rucola: Sow constantly.

Lettuce: “Four seasons wonder” and “winter wonder” at the onset of cool weather for autumn and

winter crops

Endive and sugar loaf: from July

Peas: From September (to March). In a place protected from frost. Only low climbing sorts because of

the danger from wind

Broad beans: from September (to March). In a place protected from frost, for example a slope facing

south or under olive trees.

Carrots: till October

Mangold: autumn sowing from August

Radishes: winter kinds or small red ones till October, in mild weather until November

Swedes: in July for autumn or winter crop

Beetroot: sowing for winter in good time from July

Turnips: September to October

Broccoli: until November

Cauliflower: until September in mild places

Brassica oleracea: this ancient type of cabbage is more robust than others and should primarily be

planted for reasons of security where other types of cabbage cannot be relied on to

flourish. Brassica oleracea should, however, be sowed / planted in spring so that

you can constantly pick large quantities of cabbage leaves for people and animals

Cabbage: Diverse types of autumn and winter cabbage can be sown and planted out from June into

the winter, depending on the kind. If you sow in summer you must water most carefully so

that they do not verhocken?.

Garlic: from October in mild regions, otherwise from Christmas to the end of January

Leeks / Onions: certain kinds can already be planted in autumn.

Winter cereals: November or as soon as the soil is wet enough.

More exact sowing times for other common types of vegetables in Germany still have to be investigated.We are currently gathering experience here with late summer / autumn sowing times for salsify, celery, fennel and parsnips. The plants that survive the winter could produce full yields in the following year. If you have experience with this, please let us know.

Note: My recommendations are no guarantee for success.Any winter gardening project , particulary in harsher regions in Portugal is a big risk. A lot of people don’t grow anything at all in general in winter. It is also good for the soil if it can rest or be dunged and worked by animals. (Recommended literature: P.I. System, Diet and Life 2). Besides, people often prefer to have the ground completely clear for the new gardening season so it is easier to work. – A single severe frost or a long period of frost can destroy your cauliflower, broad beans, peas or carrots or cause their growth, which is anyway slight in winter, to stagnate. Root vegetables can rot in standing water after weeks of rain. (Create drainage ditches or raised / humped beds). You must be prepared for the completely different (ground) water and wind conditions in winter. Where it was possible to garden in ideal conditions in summer, there may be a swamp or flood in winter. Nevertheless, winter gardenig in mild regions of Portugal can produce large yields and be very useful.

Eating and drinking in summer

Our table is full of food in summer. If we didn’t have any problems with heat, poor air, fire and microwave radiation here in Portugal (which won’t happen until the age of these poisonous fire and cooking devils comes to an end), the summer would be a real gourmet paradise. All sorts of vegetables in the best, sun-ripened quality! Superb tomatoes, juicy cucumbers, good-tasting pumpkins with red flesh, paprikas, all sorts of melons, fresh sweet corn …. to name only a few garden delicacies. Fruit in abundance: many kinds of plums, which have such big crops this year that we have to sell them at the market. We also have peaches and pears continually. Figs are the sweetest temptation. There are also masses of yellow and blue cactus figs. In late summer we also have grapes and apples.

We like to eat figs or cactus figs with soured milk or fresh cheese, especially in the morning. Milk often sours within 12 hours without any coagulant in the hot summer weather.

At this time of year in the evening we enjoy unprepared tomatoes with onions, oil and olives, accompanied by wine and also cheese if we have any. But milk is scarce here in dry summers. Especially the small onions taste best if you bite into them directly and eat them like apples. Later in the autumn, as soon as the first olives give oil, we make our “bread” swell with milk made of coarsely ground wheat, some herbs and some vegetables, which we then eat in the evening with oil over it and tomatoes, onions, paprikas, preserved olives.

We never leave out our prepared, plentiful midday meal of vegetables despite all the abundance. We need a full and nutritious meal once a day to combat the increasing harmful influences from outside. Unfortunately there is a problem with green salad here in summer. We have to help out in our need with wild herbs which we chop with a rocker knife and add to raw potato salad and also to cabbage and mangold. Especially the salads of green leaves are very important now because of our excessive consumption of sugar. If they are lacking, you often feel tired or even have toothache. (Oak-leaf lettuce and, strangely, endives grow the most readily here in summer.) – However, it isn’t possible for us to buy lettuce. People who are accustomed to their own products won’t touch any commercial produce. It simply tastes too awful and has a corresponding effect.

Our summer midday meal consists approximately of the following:

(All basic recipes can be enhanced. See System literature)

“Salt” = uncleaned see or stone salt. “Oil = naturally pressed oil from seed capable of sprouting, with us olive oil. Peanuts like everything else, of course, only raw and home-grown! Graters from Börner, rotating graters from Messerschmitt.

– Cucumber salad: finely sliced with herbs, vinegar, oil, salt ….

– Potato salad: fine rectangular pieces, ground wheat, grated cheese, chopped wild herbs, oil

…. (We add all conceivable ingredients, for example egg shells, lichen, dried vegetables,

dried herbs …. all finely ground.)

– Tomato soup: coarsely grated ripe tomatoes, onions, aubergines or beans, paprika …. all cut

into sufficiently small pieces. Fresh herbs, garlich, soft fresh sweet corn kernels, possibly

long “noodles” made of grated courgettes or pumpkins, olive oil, sea salt.

– Pumpkin: grate spaghetti with the Börner grater for thin strings from soft pumpkins. Whole

sunflower seeds, finely grated peanuts and/or walnuts. Add salt and garlic to the mixture.

Mix everything carefully and add oil.

– Cactus leaf salad: thinly sliced with peanut meal and vinegar

– Beetroot: grated with the rotating grater or with the Börner apple grater. Add vinegar, oil,

salt and honey.

– Sweet corn: simply finely grate hard, but not yet ripe cobs (possibly with peperoni) and

scatter the freshly ground meal over the salads or soups.

Grate soft cobs to a fine puree and alld oil and salt.

– Fruit puree from plums, pears, peaches …. as an addition or dessert or:

– Fresh (black) berry jam: simply stamp the berries with honey.

Fermented vegetable preserves

The new fresh gherkins and particularly our fermented preserves with tomatoes, gherkins, paprika, onions, garlic and lots of peperoni are also popular this year. These mixtures of fermented vegetables remind us of the pickled vegetables in Greek restaurants. Unfortunately we still lack okra. We ought at last to procure seeds and grow this legume or species of bean, perhaps together with sweet corn. Sweet corn with bush beans – sown and with heaped-up earth in the same row – produced a significantly larger crop than without bush beans. The bush beans in sweet corn also had a better crop than those growing outside. So we actually can’t see a reason why sweet corn should be grown without beans in sunny open fields.

But more about the fermentations: even the hottest peperoni pods lose their extreme tase in the fermentations of mixed vegetables, thus becoming edible and giving the fermentations a very good, spicy taste.

Later in summer/autumn we make excellent fermented vegetable mixes, especially with mushrooms.

Fermented vegetables

Here is a brief description of how to make fermented vegetables for those who don’t yet know how:

Cut diverse vegetables of good quality (no artificial fertiliser! No sprayed poison!) up into bite-sized pieces. Add sufficient salt and fill up with liquid (vegetable juice) until the vegetables are completely submerged or covered. To obtain vegetable juice you can puree tomatoes or stamp cabbage with salt until the juice comes out. You can always use wine or vinegar. However, this results in different, not always typical fermented tastes. By pressing or stamping the vegetable mixture in the preserving jars you can often obtain sufficient juice to cover it completely. You should never use water! Watery preserves don’t taste of anything and nor do they keep long.

Basic knowledge for ecological practice: ferments

You can start fermenting nutritious mixtures of vegetables, especially those containing beans or cereals, in an old ceramic pot and only fill them into preserving jars with lids after a certain time when the fermentation has finished. The process is actually not much different from wine-making. You always leave enough fermentation pressure in the bottles or screw jars so that the fermented material stays fresh and tangy.

The fermentation is stopped by the growing pressure in the closed bottle or jar before the whole of the sugar content has been fermented. Thus our preserves have more taste and life and are a tingling taste experience. If you leave too much pressure in the jars, you can create real fermentation bombs which can make a mess when they are opened or explode in the storage place.

The initial stormy fermentation takes place within the first three to ten days, depending on the temperature. After that you should fill the mixture into jars.

—————————————————————————————

Remember: The more pressure remains in the jar or bottle, the fresher and better tasting the fermented contents are.

—————————————————————————————

We are in fact also familiar with the pressure method from the production of sparkling wine from sweet grapes. The fermentation also stops by itself in the sparkling wine bottles on account of the growing pressure. After this a lot of sugar remains in the juice and less alcohol is created, everything fizzes prickles and foams and makes a very lively impression.

The pressure or sparkling wine method is, in the meantime, often used for making cider. As apples mostly do not have as much sugar as grapes, there is not such immense pressure as with sparkling wine. I know farmers who even make their cider in Coca Cola bottles. Now there are also pressurised barrels for this on the market.

The described work with the fermentation pressure (only in bottles, or jars with screw lids, but not possible to produce in pots) is especially important if you want to ferment with only a little salt. However, I recommend filling all fermented vegetables into jars and wine from apples or pears into bottles. Large amounts of fermented material simply lose their fresh, tingling quality too quickly after opening and have a bland taste.

Mastery of all natural fermenting methods for pickling, making alcohol or vinegar is part of the basic knowledge of an ecological practitioner. Without this knowledge and without the practice of fermenting all fruit and vegetable surpluses, it is, in my opinion, a bitter thing to get through the winter in northern countries. Even on some south-sea islands the inhabitants died after they no longer produced their traditional fermented bread fruit preserve because of receiving supplies of cereals (see “Fata Hiva” by Thor Heyerdahl).

Incidentally: you should stop using any preservation methods which involve fire, poison or chemicals, sterilisation, frost and suchlike as soon as possible. You poison and destroy your valuable food with these methods. Such preserves are harmful to your health and are, above all, absolutely unnecessary. They do not even keep longer. Good fermented preserves in jars with screw lids easily keep five years! Weck, Konsorten and all those who have been involved with selling bottling jars have probably instilled this nonsense about sterilisation into us! – At any rate, all good-quality vegetables (and only such a kind) can be fermented without any problem raw, without any use of heat or chemicals, with salt or in vinegar or possibly also in oil!

(More about this in my literature: Diet and Life, Practicable Raw Eating, Natural Farming in Portugal, etc.)

Eating and drinking in autumn

We can enjoy most salad vegetables and even tomatoes and paprika into the winter if they are stored properly. Onions, all green salad, Jerusalem artichokes, potatoes, cabbages and swedes, beetroot, carrots …. form the basis of our vegetable meals. In the morning we eat dried figs, quinces, apples and milk, nuts and seeds. When it gets cold, you want to eat more fat and then especially appreciate the “fat solubilisers”, i.e. good vinegars, the new wine and the pickled preserves. We press olive oil fresh each day as soon as possible. The cereals also come into their own again:

Raw bread from ground wheat and/or rye, enriched with ground lentils and peanuts (also sunflowers, nuts ….) and left to swell in milk, forms the basis of concentrated meals to warm us in the evening, when we eat such bread with oil, onions, garlic, cheese, olives, fresh cheese with herbs, pickled vegetables, winter tomatoes …. The grown-ups drink wine with their food and often extend their evening meal with several glasses of red wine. The children often prefer to eat their bread with honey and milk.

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Written by paradiseislandfamily

August 9, 2008 um 9:27 am

4 Antworten

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